Emerging Technologies in Education: How Colleges Can Learn From Student Behavior – Research Education

With so many new technological developments, colleges are having a hard time deciding which tools to use, which to discard and how to figure that out. The answers depend on the school: what their research, educational and financial goals are. From the perspective of student experiences and behavior, institutions cannot possibly proceed fast enough to accommodate their needs. For example, the medical school students sometimes (but should always) have access to computing that includes 3-d modeling of patients that includes “game” like practice. Surgeons practice surgery without having to work on a person… yet. And future ER doctors and nurses practice on dolls that include programs that react as they would in an emergency situation.While that seems like these technologies are the “coolest” thing around, what actually is making the biggest impact on the student experience is the utilization of cloud computing. Students do work online… not just attend online classes, but research, write papers, study with other students and they also store their work there. They carry around objects that allow this learning anywhere they are. While the traditional student a few short years ago was trapped in their dorm room, books in stacks all around, debating whether or not to hang out or stay home and study, these students can work on their way to class, waiting in line at the store or at the doctor’s office, etc. Their books are more often than not available online. The research that they do via the library catalog allows them to search not only the physical books but also databases for peer-reviewed material and ebooks in an instant. And, rather than printing out or downloading the information, they simply remember where it was or keep track of the information via tools that record their searches. (Many of these tools are available currently in the databases.)Most of the students I work with have laptops or tablets and nearly all of them have smartphones. Panera, McDonald’s, Krystal’s and other restaurants have all made wireless available for free, so these are places where you will see students. Although, let me clarify, most of those students are over 30. The Y-generation students, however, are utilizing wireless technology via the cell phone and apps that get them online for free. They are able to access the internet anywhere there is a cellular signal… And that is much more prevalent than wireless that is attached to a building or cable line. It is a little bit slower on 3g, but on 4g, it is almost like you are actually wired directly to a DSL line.With tools like GoogleDocs, Dropbox, and other cloud based editors and storage places, the ability of the research student to keep track of their research is much broader than it ever was. Also, the students can now easily cite any material that they find online (again, via their tablet, phone, laptop). The paper they are working on is being written and cited simultaneously. There are millions of phone applications (many are free) that allow students to practice surgery, deal with a patient that is in cardiac arrest and learn how to assess a patient with Alzheimer’s (on the phone or computer). They can look at 3-d versions of any part of the human anatomy (inside and out) and view thousands of MRIs, CT scans, X-rays and videos of actual procedures. Academicians need to see that these technologies are there and students are utilizing them.Oh, and they can talk to their Grandma on Facebook. The social networking platform and text messaging keeps students in touch with each other so that the student learning experience is integrated with the social.The ability for human beings, not necessarily gifted, geeky or introverted, to interact with technology in ways that enhance the “human” experience, such as sharing, loving, talking, arguing, turned computing into an extension of living. The human behavioral side of things is what will continue to evolve businesses, governments, research and education radically over the next few years (moments) in ways that traditional, bureaucratic or money-driven organizations can’t even see yet. The people will influence virally.There are many more emerging technologies that go way beyond the ones mentioned here, from foldable or 3d displays, “sixth sense” technology, crowdsourcing and free classes at MIT, our world is evolving faster than we can ever dream of catching up with.

Pursuing An Online PhD In Education – Is It Feasible? – Research Education

There’s no end to education so it’s not unusual for people to further their studies even when they are very well into their career. Pursuing a full time course could be a problem for people in the academic field like teachers. Their schedule is always full with seminars to attend, workshops to be held, examination and correction work etc. Besides, an online PhD in education will take some time to complete and getting a leave sanctioned to attend regular classes could prove to be impossible. The Internet has opened out an entirely new line of academics, in fact bringing classrooms closer.First and foremost, it takes only seconds to find out whether one is eligible or not for the PHD in education. An online application can be filled in and all other required documents mailed to the specified address. All guidance essential for the course is provided by experts in the field. A person who wants to further his career in the academic field had best go for a PhD in Education. This will only enhance their teaching ability having learnt the latest trends and practices in imparting learning. So many PhD’s have brought out books based on their research.All the course material will be available online from a particular site and you can download it as and when required. Lectures are available through videos which again can be downloaded. You get a unique opportunity to be coached by the best in the academic field from all over the world. The requirements of the course such as assignments to be submitted, projects to be undertaken etc are the same as the regular course and the same amount of pressure is put on the candidate for their timely submittal.Some of the subjects usually dealt with in online PhD in education programs are

school safety and health issues,
the planning and implementation of educational activities
Social foundations of education
Theory and practice of learning and teaching.Career options for those who attain an online PhD in education are promising. There are various alternatives like- academic researcher, educational consultant, high posts in various non profit making organizations etc.A major advantage with an online PhD program is that you are not time bound. All timetables are set by you. You also get a chance to interact with people pursuing the same degree. They can share their views and speak out on various issues and not having a class room ambience does not present itself as a handicap. All reports and presentations can be submitted online. All what is required is a computer and a net connection and with this you can study or work form any corner in the world. Teachers can make use of all their free time in between classes to catch up on their studies.The crucial thing here is to make sure that you’ve enlisted for your online PhD in education program with an accredited college or university. You can even opt for a foreign university to pursue your program.

Know About Medical Education Conferences – Research Education

What are Medical Education Conferences?The medical education conferences are the worldwide friendly union of physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, medical students etc. working in one or the other medical areas and are interested in enhancing outcomes in the healthcare industry. Leaders of the medical education come together to share ideas and experiences to improve educational practices. These meetings are held in a chosen medical field, especially at exotic places to make one relax with their families and friends along with subject enrichment.Registrations are being made for attending such kind of meets. Abstracts and Presentations submissions are done months before the held date of the specific conference. After the review of the abstracts, they are accepted or rejected and the full schedule is then made keeping in consideration the time of the seminar and question-answer session. The event is spread over two or more weeks depending on the number of abstracts to be discussed.Why are these conducted?Variety of sessions and workshops are conducted to enable the diverse group of educators and researchers to share and discuss interesting ongoing approaches, innovations, and interventions to medical education.It is a platform for people of similar interests.
to form a network with others.
to take part in workshops and seminars.
to present their own work via presentations.
It provides tools for training of health professionals in developing, mastering and maintaining the important knowledge, skills, and attitude required for safe and effective patient care. These conferences help in developing and implementing curriculum, assessment and evaluation competency, simulation and observation studies, and policy or ethical dilemmas in medical training.Undergraduate/Postgraduate level students get the opportunity to attend expert’s seminars. Plus, they also get a chance to lead a seminar which helps them to strengthen their basic skills and to reinforce a clinical experience with an evidence-based approach, in turn, it creates efficiency and improves compliance with duty hours and patient care.Upcoming Medical Education Conferences in 2018Medical schools, universities and many associations routinely offer conferences on medical education; from undergraduate medical education to resident and research education on the vast number of topics.Have a look at the lists which are given below-
1. 15th APMEC 2018: 10-14 January 2018, Singapore.
2. Pain Management & Addiction Medicine for Primary Care: 16-18 February 2018 in Whistler (Vancouver) in Canada.
3. Cardiology for Primary Care: February 17-19, 2018 in Disneyland, California.
4. Infectious Diseases for Primary Care: 22nd – 24th February 2018 in Riviera Maya/Cancun, Mexico.
5. Clinical and Patient Wellness Program Series: February 22-24, 2018 in Orlando, Florida.
6. Pharmacology and Pain Management for Primary Care: Between 2-4 March 2018, it will be held in Sedona/Grand Canyon, Arizona.
7. Neurology and Psychiatry for Primary Care: In Napa Valley/Sonoma Wine Country, California, 9-11 March 2018.
8. Ottawa 2018.ICME 2018: 10-14 March 2018, Abu Dhabi.
9. Pediatrics for Primary Care: March 16-18, 2018 in Kapolei, Hawaii-Aulani.
10. Women’s Health and Pain Management: 24-26 March 2018 in Montego Bay, Jamaica.
11. Emergencies in Primary care: March 29-31, 2018 in Punta Cana.
12. Psychiatry and Women’s Health for Primary Care: March 29-31, 2018.
13. 13th International Medical Education Conferences 2018: 13-15 April 2018, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
14. AMEE 2018: 25-29 August 2018, Basel, Switzerland.
15. Learn Serve Lead 2018 AAMC: 2-6 November 2018, Austin, USA.

Adult Education Principles – How to Help People Learn and Grow – Research Education

As a leader in any organization or business, one of your greatest challenges is figuring out how to help your people learn and grow so that they will be more effective and add to your bottom line. The problem is that our own experience and education does not prepare us for the modern world of adult learning. The examples we saw in high school and maybe even in college don’t really apply integral world where we have to compete with the job, stress, families, leisure time in order to make a difference in our people’s lives. What can a manager do to solve this problem?Fortunately, there is plenty of excellent research in the area of adult learning that can be put to immediate use by practical manager. Although they’re a many different theories there is some common principles upon which they all agree, by focusing on these core principles you will definitely be able to help yourself and your people learn and grow and move along the path to success.The mainstream  theory tells us that  adult learning is based on the following principles:1.Reciprocity: this means that there’s a direct link between the learning and the students goals.2.Experience: adults look for practical evidence that what you’re teaching has real value in their world.3.Problem-solving orientation: let’s face it, most of our work in the real world involves solving practical, difficult problems. To be successful we need to know how to solve these. If you can show them the way that all you have to do is get out of their way and they will learn.4. Individualized and self directed: people have their own strengths and their own preferred ways of learning and you need to find ways to tap into that individuality and let them work at their own pace. If you can do that they’ll take care of most of the learning themselves.5. Integrates learning and living: you need to be sensitive to the competing demands your students have. By accommodating their needs and working with them you’ll find that this will increase their commitment to the education you offer an improved their chances for success.6.Application: book learning will only carry you so far. What you’re adult students are looking for are practical ways to solve hands-on problems and so each of your educational sessions should include technical problems and give them a chance to work out their solutions in a controlled, supportive setting.By finding creative ways to leverage these principles, you will be able to develop education and training programs that are well-suited for your adult workers and learners to develop themselves with your support. As a manager your people will be immediately more productive and loyal to you and your business. This will add directly to your bottom line. As an individual adult learner yourself, you can evaluate different programs using these principles to determine which one is best suited for you and your needs.

Options in Educational Decision Making – Research Education

Everyone needs make decisions all their life, so we think we know how. We do it daily: what to wear to school/work/social events; what to do in our spare or free time; when to spend or save money; which purchases are necessary or frivolous. We make decision about objects (cars, clothes, books, internets sites, etc.), situations (how to behave in various social settings) and abstractions or untouchables (care, love or concern about others and their perceptions or feelings about us).The problem with decision making is that no one expressly teaches us how to make “good” or appropriate decisions. That is because decisions usually involve recognizing options or choices of a series of actions leading to a specific goal. Most decisions are routine: when, where and how to buy food, car repairs, clothing care, etc. We become lulled into security in our decision making process.We become challenged with decision making when stress builds. Researchers found people perceive fewer choices or options available and that we tend to use traditional or habitual choices to make our decisions. Unfortunately, this means that novel solutions to problems will not be perceived, acknowledged or understood when the decision maker(s) is/are in crisis or under stress.Education reform approaches are perfect examples of perceiving limited options for making decisions. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and its replacement directives have an extremely narrow focus: all children must learn the same content at the same rate by using “scientifically researched” materials. Gone are the discretionary powers of observations that teacher have. Gone are experimental approaches or innovative materials or methods. Gone is information related to centuries of knowledge about child development and readiness skills. Gone is what has worked in the past. Now teachers must use what some university (or publisher’s underwritten) study has proved to be effective.Educators must go through teacher preparation programs. Including an undergraduate degree and the professional training, that amounts to at least 4-5 years of college. Additionally, most states require that teachers earn a masters’ degree (1-2 years to complete) within a certain length of time. This means that educators know a lot, but they aren’t allowed to use what they’ve learned in their classrooms unless it comes packaged in “scientifically researched” materials.The bottom line is that the knowledge and wisdom of teachers is ignored; yet they are responsible and accountable for decisions that others, usually non-educators, have made. The decision makers are relying on the traditional approaches, not innovation or creative options. By narrowing their views of the problems, they are excluding options that could work far better, more easily, and for far less money than they currently mandate.

US Education Rankings: 9 Strategies For Raising Education Rankings Thru Increasing Education’s Value – Research Education

In researching this article, I noticed stats about economics and education. Yes, we know that the higher the education we have, the more money we make. This doesn’t address the VALUE OF EDUCATION TO THE STUDENT.Education must hold value for students, whether this be getting an education to get a high paying job, ranking first in our class, feeling the satisfaction of learning, enlightening ourselves, pleasing our families. Value is personal, and we all invest in what has value on our own terms.When we are young, especially, we need the guidance of our mentors, including educators, family, friends, society and media, any of which can lead us well or not. If we are taught that the most important thing is to spend 15 hours a day studying, we may believe it. If we are taught that education doesn’t matter because the salary per hour of slinging crack depends upon how much time we spend out of school, we still have a good chance of realizing that this is a bad lesson. If we are given a creative array of lessons that will affect how we value education, we have a better shot at building a foundation and understanding the positive nature of education for ourselves than if we are taught rote, unrelated facts.I recall a running debate I had with a friend about responsibility and teaching. Was it the teacher’s job to do whatever it took to impart the lesson to the student who didn’t understand it the first time along with the others, or was it the student’s responsibility to study to the ends of the earth to understand the lesson?I was raised in a progressive, nurturing household where learning was pleasurable, and I never felt fear in asking questions, in not understanding a lesson. I just said I needed help and got it. My opposing friend in this debate was raised by foreign parents. His father (by U.S. standards) oppressed him and brought fear to his heart that shook him should he not be first in the class. In this case, it looks like environment had a lot to do with our various sides.I believe teachers should be willing to morph their methods in such a way that the lesson is understood by each student, also creating an atmosphere where the student loves the knowledge, doesn’t fear failure and blossoms because of it. My opposing friend was sure that any student who could not understand the lesson was not trying hard enough and had on her/his shoulders the responsibility of figuring out the lesson alone. He saw this as the only mark of a true student. He also expected to be physically reprimanded.What I see is that the best learning comes out of cooperative education and out of creative learning environments where the lesson integrates with life lessons, builds social stature and touches upon current trends.Here are nine sample lessons that could fit into the technological and creative pace of our current world.1. Have students make individual videos or one group video showing a segment of history. This leaves the subject matter open and stimulates the imagination. An example of this is to film an ant walking up the building, the falling of a leaf in autumn from tree to ground or some group project that is more involved. If no equipment is available, students can act out the material and record it on paper. Or call a local law firm and ask them to donate or let you borrow a video camera.2. Take students on a photographic field trip. If there is no means for bus transportation, the field trip can be as far as around the building or on the school grounds. The theme can be about measurement, for example, if it is a math lesson. The photos would show the angles of bridges, the slope of a roof, the uprightness of a telephone pole, the angle of twigs in a bird’s nest. The photos would then be exhibited in a photo gallery where each student would get to invite parents or other meaningful adults. Inviting “others” insures there is a support system so that the event is not traumatic for students whose families don’t usually participate or do not exist. The presence of other significant adults, including other teachers, coaches, clergy, social workers, tutors, would allow for each student to be supported and for no one to feel alone. If there are no cameras available, a local camera store might be willing to provide a loan. Or Canon might participate with a loan or a gift to enhance the lives of your students who could pass on the cameras to every class in the school, if necessary.3. Create a social issue in the classroom that requires a judge and a jury, such as trying a thief who stole to feed her/his family. Have students act out the parts of each role. Have students take turns being “innocent” and “guilty,” judge and jury. Then, take a field trip to the courthouse or local magistrate. Arrange to sit in on a session or, structure prohibiting that, have the magistrate talk about justice and our American way.4a. Create a mock central market in the classroom where students buy and sell wares and practice their math skills. Have the money they use in this market be based upon tokens that they have earned through a Good Samaritan program in the classroom. Those who help another during the day get a token. The program develops citizenship, planning and math. Then, take the students out on a field trip and give them each a dollar that you get from petty cash or your pocket. No student money should be used. Only the dollar that you give the student. The mission: see who can bring back the most items for one dollar. Thus, we include budgeting as part of the lesson.4b. Create a mini stock exchange in the classroom. Use large beans to buy and sell shares. Have a professional trader come to explain basic concepts.5. Have each student write a poem that rhymes. Then call a local rock star or rap star to come in and turn the poem into a song that the whole class learns. Yes, the music teacher could lead this activity, but celebrity sells in business and education and invites the juices of creativity to flow in the classroom, instills confidence and will involve community celebrities in the betterment of education.6a. Have a drum circle in the classroom. Call a local drummer to come in and lead. Teach three to five messages from old drum communication. Talk about communication through drumming and have each student drum one message that you have taught during this lesson. Have the others interpret the message.6b. As a follow-up lesson, have a cell phone tech come in and talk about the method of cell tower transmission. Then talk about the differences in social communication between drumming and cell phones.7. Have each student think up an example of how we use math in the world. Exclude being able to go buy something in a store, online or on the phone. Call a local app maker to donate an app that has the class photo and an individual photo with each student’s idea as part of an app that pulls up. Then have the app maker talk about the skills s/he had to acquire to learn app making.8a. Pick a theme including success, education, happiness, for example. Have students create an abstract painting that represents this theme and have them present it. In-school project only, since some parents are not at home to help and some parents do the project for the student. Film the presentations as well as the creative process. Post the art on the classroom website. If there is no classroom website, call a local web person and ask if s/he will donate putting up (online) a page with the students’ presentations.8b. Go to a local museum or research the art at the museum online and find art that represents the particular theme to each individual person.9. Have a regular tea time once a week. This will develop unity of community. Call a local tea specialist to start you off with how to have tea and some of the history of tea. This quiet time will give the class a spirit of camaraderie while developing value for quiet reflection and experiencing its benefits.To summarize, these ideas are samples, for different grades, different social climates. The idea is to give school value to the student, to make the lessons relevant to the life of the student, so that we increase the number of students in school and US educational rankings. How many times do we slack off on a task because it is not pleasing to us? And, yet, we slave away at another task because we like it. I remember working hard for my 6th grade teacher because one of the ways he showed he cared was by letting us get the school piano and wheel it into the classroom on Friday afternoons. Everyone sang; I got to play the piano and sing. This added value to education for everyone.We even discussed the lyrics, which, I learned 12 years later, getting an M.A. in Music Therapy, had extreme importance in molding us. Which brings us to the next point: how do creative modules such as these fit into the present system? That is a discussion for the article titled Education 2.0: 5 Ways To Make Exceptional Lessons Of Yesterday The Educational Normal Of Today, soon to be published.The most exhilarating part of teaching comes when the student receives the knowledge. Most of us in the profession enjoy the creativity it takes to teach, motivate and inspire. This is the skill set that builds value in the student.Singing the education blues won’t work. Looking at charts of where we rank in the world education system can motivate but is not the answer: http://xrl.us/guardian2010educrank. We need in-road builders to make these types of lessons the norm, rather than special events. It is one thing to offer an isolated lesson such as the photography trip in number 2. above. It is quite another to build this structure into our current educational infrastructure. Onward, teachers. Now is the time.

Higher Education in 2009 – What is a Degree Course Actually Worth? – Research Education

As thousands of prospective students embark on a three year career of higher education, much has been written about the lack of suitable jobs currently available for graduates, and the amount of debt students enrolling now will incur by the time they have finished their studies.As research published by push.co.uk shows, students starting degree courses this year will be likely finish with the biggest graduate debts we have known – with the average amount being around 23,000 per person. The research and other pressures have since caused the UK government to set aside £5 billion to help students who find themselves during financial troubles during their studies.However, further data published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is helping clarify the actual financial worth of university degrees – across a number of countries – by calculating the return on investment by weighing up education costs and foregone earnings with earnings made in the future.The research found that across all OECD countries (including the UK, US, Japan and France), an average male student who has obtained a university degree will benefit from more than $186,000 more over his lifetime compared to that if he had left education after high/secondary school. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the average for women is slightly lower – a statistic that is affected by the lacking equality between earnings for women and men. Yet, the earnings still average £134,000 more for a female student with a university degree.However, aside from the projected financial worth for individuals, the report also highlights the benefits to the economy per person who is put through higher education – with the average male earning $52,000 over his lifetime.The OECD report is no doubt positive at a time when many students are fearing the financial impact of further education. Yet, the research also does well to highlight the importance of distance learning and how it will have a significant impact on global higher education. Graduation rates across all OECD countries have increased by 20 percent, whilst – surprisingly – the UK has ‘levelled off’ to a 2 percent increase over the last seven years, whilst the US sees more people leaving education before university.Of course, both of these countries that have seen a dramatic influx of students entering higher education due to the recession and are subsequently seeing a saturation of facilities. Could we soon see the developing countries (Ireland, Poland and Portugal have seen an increase of 7 percent between 1998 and 2006) helping where the UK and US can’t accommodate?

What You Need to Know to Find Scholarships for Education! – Research Education

Finding scholarships and resources can be a time consuming task. But it’s worth it! Scholarships and grants can help alleviate college expenses. The cost of a higher education can be daunting for some students; however it should never prevent a student from getting an education.Many adult students, military personnel, parents and their high school students are trying to figure out how they’ll afford college expenses. Before resorting to student loans, students should seriously research scholarships and grants opportunities. There are thousands of scholarships and awards out there for all ages and levels of education. Let the research begin!Internet ResearchOne way to find scholarships and grants is to perform some online research. Most of the online scholarship search engines will require you to register for the site. In some cases, during the registration process the sites will ask you many questions and this may take time. This is done to filter the scholarships that will be specific to you. So fill out the information completely and in detail. There are numerous scholarship search engines out there, but be aware: if a site asks you to pay a fee, it may be a scam.Some of the top free scholarship search engine sites are fastweb.com and scholarships.com. Scholarships listed on these sites serve the general population of students by helping them find grants based on a wide variety of factors such as personal interests, abilities, hobbies, activities and involvement in various organizations and, yes, also military involvement. Sites that cater specifically to military are military.com, moaa.org/education, and finaid.org/military/.High School Counselors/CollegesIf you don’t know where to start, you can always get help from a high school guidance counselor or financial aid advisor at the college the student plans to attend. For high school students, guidance offices will have a list of scholarships either on a bulletin board or even on the school’s website. Additionally, if you need help applying for scholarships many guidance counselors will help you put together the information you need such as a resume or essay. Making an appointment with your guidance counselors to discuss financial aid can never hurt.Need more help? Make an appointment with a financial aid advisor at the college you plan to attend. Financial aid is their job; they will be able to answer most of your questions and can be a great resource for finding scholarships. Be sure to ask if the college you are attending has any in-house scholarships for which you may be eligible.CommunityMany public libraries will compile a list of scholarships available in your region and have librarians willing to help you with the search. Also, local organizations often support students by offering scholarships and awards. It is a good idea to check with your employer, a parent’s employer, or other organizations you have experience with. If you volunteer with an organization, be sure to check with them, too. When you are talking to organizations, it is good to have a resume on hand, along with a clear outline of your educational goals!Some career college state associations offer scholarships. A list of state associations can be found HERE.Finally, don’t forget the Imagine America Scholarship and Award programs for students attending participating career colleges!Imagine America for graduating high school seniors. Military Award Program (MAP) for military personnel. Adult Skills Education Program (ASEP) for adult students age 19 and above.Find more information about the Imagine America Foundation visit scholarships for education.

Social Mobility And Education In The United Kingdom – Research Education

I have researched education in the Philippines, a nation where participation in all levels of education has been high for generations. Despite this high enrolment in education, the Philippines has been characterised by low economic development associated with low levels of social change, especially in the area of social mobility.One aspect of my research was to identify whether there were aspects of the education system, itself, that led to these results. I focussed on the private nature of most Philippine education, an aspect which became more important during the last quarter of the twentieth century when, as a result of structural adjustment programmes, there was a shortage of public investment in education. In the Philippines, therefore, there is effectively a market in education.What I concluded was that the Philippine elite competes from within its own ranks for access to the high value end of this market, thus excluding poorer Filipinos from participation in that part of the sector which appears to offer educational quality. The intra-elite competition has effectively become the education system’s function and focus, so access to quality education is denied to the vast majority of the population. My findings also suggested that the continued use of market forces in education accentuates and exacerbates this effect, thus further precluding social mobility.The Philippines is thus a country where it matters where you were educated, where there is an identifiable queue of graduates of education, with the elite associated with particular institutions and geographical areas.The British appear to be proud of the “high standards” set by the elite sector of their education system, hence we can still have a debate about the potential of grammar schools to promote social mobility, despite the fact that if implemented they would exclude three quarters of the population. In addition, it is clear that access to quality education at all levels in Britain is determined by a market in house prices, a market in which where the elite sector competes within its own ranks for access to quality, thus driving the market. It is not exactly the same as the privatised Philippine education system, but it would appear to work the same way. Today’s finding on social mobility cannot therefore be surprising.